Journal: Journal of Applied Ecology
Location: Bristol Bay, Alaska

11-29% of Sockeye Salmon that crossed between commercial fisheries in Bristol Bay, Alaska, were injured from previous commercial gillnet entanglement, resulting in reduced survival and impaired reproduction. More than half of injured fish did not spawn, despite being from spawning populations, which means the estimate of spawning individuals is too high by at least 5-15%.

Sockeye Salmon – Oncorhynchus nerka

Baker MR, Schindler DE, 2009. “Unaccounted mortality in salmon fisheries: non-retention in gillnets and effects on estimates of spawners” Journal of Applied Ecology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01673.x
Affiliations: University of Washington

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Journal: Fisheries Management and Ecology
Location: Salt River watershed, Wyoming and Idaho, USA

Adult cutthroat trout in the Salt River watershed were tracked from September-October 2005 until August 2006 using implanted radio transmitters. The fish were caught in the main river stem, spent October-March largely sedentery in pools, started to move more in April and then increased May-June for the spawning season, when 44% of the 43 fish remained in Salt River in April 2006, 37% moved to mountain streams, and 19% into spring streams, almost all preferring streams with manmade pools and gravel-cobble riffles. The fish didn’t use streams that dewatered in the summer or were blocked by manmade barriers.

Cutthroat Trout – Oncorhynchus clarkii

Sanderson TB, Hubert WA, 2009. “Movements by adult cutthroat trout in a lotic system: implications for watershed-scale management” Fisheries Management and Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.2009.00669.x

Affiliations: USGS, Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit.

Journal: African Journal of Ecology
Location: Marsabit Protected Area, Kenya

The distribution of 9 satellite-collared elephants (4 females, 5 bulls) around a volcanic shield with a forestsavanna habitat mosaic in Marsabit National Park and Reserve, Kenya, was influenced most heavily by proximity to drinking water (24% – 13% for permanent water bodies and 11% for seasonal rivers). Elevation contributed 15% to the variation in distribution, but this is probably because vegetation structure is very dependent on elevation – shrubland contributed 10%, and forest 9%, with elephants preferring high forested elevations in the dry season and low shrubland in the wet season. Human proximity was also significant: distance from human settlements contributed 8% and distance from minor roads 7%. 27% of the variation was not significantly correlated to anything in particular.

Ngene SM, Skidmore AK, Van Gils H, Douglas-Hamilton I, Omondi P, 2009. “Elephant distribution around a volcanic shield dominated by a mosaic of forest and savanna (Marsabit, Kenya)” African Journal of Ecology 47(2): 234-245, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.01018.x

Affiliations: Kenya Wildlife Service; International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC); Save the Elephant Trust.

Journal: Fungal Ecology
Location: Northeastern Germany

12 protostelid (microscopic slime mold) species were found in 15 samples of aquatic and terrestrial litter taken from northeast German ponds, 90% of species (including all of the most common) being found in both types of litter. Terrestrial litter contained more protostelids (14% of cultures) than aquatic litter (12%), and the water column contained none.

Tesmer J, Schnittler M, 2009. “Aquatic protostelids – a study from northeastern Germany” Fungal Ecology 2:(3) 140-144, doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2009.02.001

Affiliations: Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems
Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald

Journal:Fisheries Management and Ecology
Location: England and Wales, UK

In 2004 and 2005, 187 fish kills were investigated in lake fisheries in England and Wales, predominantly stocked with Common Carp. The fish kills largely occurred in Spring (April – June) in lakes with high stocking densities (>1500 kg ha−1), a uniform habitat, and few aquatic shore plants (macrophytes). Mortality was mainly from parasitic infections (White Spot, Chilodonella species, Ichthyobodo necator, and Fish Lice) and ulcerative diseases caused by infection with the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, and secondary bacterial infections of other Aeromonas and Pseudomonas bacteria. Recent stocking was linked to Carp fish kills.

Common Carp – Cyprinus carpio
White Spot – Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
Fish Louse – Argulus sp.

Hewlett NR, Snow J, Britton JR, 2009. “The role of management practices in fish kills in recreational lake fisheries in England and Wales” Fisheries Management and Ecology, 16(3): 248 – 254, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.2009.00671.x

Affiliations: Environment Agency, UK
Bournemouth University, UK

Journal: Environmental Conservation
Location: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Thekkady, Kerala, India

The Periyar Tiger Reserve, India, is supported by the India Eco-Development Project (PTR-IEDP), an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) funded by donors. The project has been internally evaluated as successful, although out of the US$6million received, only 43.2% went to community-based conservation activities. When an independent survey of 180 people (half of whom had benefited from the PTR-IEDP, half of whom had not) was carried out, 71.1% of those who had benefited said their attitude to conservation was not changed by the project, and of the 55 community benefits only 36.4% were still being used.

Gubbi S, Linkie M, Leader-Williams N, 2008. “Evaluating the legacy of an integrated conservation and development project around a tiger reserve in India.” Environmental Conservation, 35: 331-339, doi:10.1017/S0376892908005225
Affiliations: Wildlife Conservation Society: India (WCS), University of Kent

Journal: Ecological Entomology
Location: ?, Canada

The Elm Spanworm hatching boom is 2 weeks after the Sycamore Maple budburst. 85% more eggs were laid on the lower trunk than the crown (although those in later stages of development moved up towards the crown) and it had nothing to do with avoiding parasites (only one pupa was parasitised) or getting better quality leaves, although feeding on older leaves (three leaves expanded per bud) significantly improved the caterpillars’ chance of surviving to adulthood (90%, or 45% higher than when feeding on on younger leaves). Sycamore Maple leaves mature acropetally (from the base up).

Elm Spanworm – Ennomos subsignaria
Sycamore Maple – Acer pseudoplatanus

Fry HRC, Quiring DT, Ryall KL, Dixon PL, 2009. “Influence of intra-tree variation in phenology and oviposition site on the distribution and performance of Ennomos subsignaria on mature sycamore maple.” Ecological Entomology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2009.01091.x
Affiliations: University of New Brunswick, Canadian Forest Service, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)

Journal: Insect Conservation and Diversity
Location: Sierra Chincua and Cerro Pelon, Mexico

Monarch butterflies overwinter in the Sierra Chincua and Cerro Pelon, Mexico, for a period of 154 days. During this time, they cluster on oyamel fir trees, which are on average 1.4 °C warmer than surrounding temperatures at night (protecting from freezing) and 1.2 °C cooler during the day (slowing the loss of fat stores). Older trees (with wider trunks) had more beneficial microclimates.

Monarch Butterfly – Danaus plexippus
Oyamel Fir – Abies religiosa

Brower LP, Williams EH, Slayback DA, Fink LS, Ramirez MI, Zubieta RR, Garcia MIL, Gier P, Lear JA, van Hook T, 2009. “Oyamel fir forest trunks provide thermal advantages for overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico.” Insect Conservation and Diversity, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2009.00052.x
Affiliations: Sweet Briar College, VA; Hamilton College, NY; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Huntingdon College, AL; National Cathedral School, Washington, DC.

Journal: African Journal of Ecology
Location: Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

Of 612 Mediterranean Killifish caught in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia, 54 (8.8%) had deformed spines, and were 8 times more likely to be deformed when from polluted areas. Deformities occurred less frequently as size increased, more often in fish under 25mm long.

Mediterranean Killifish: Aphanius fasciatus

Messaoudi I, Kessabi K, Kacem A, Saïd K, 2009. “Incidence of spinal deformities in natural populations of Aphanius fasciatus Nardo, 1827 from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia.” Africal Journal of Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.00972.x
Affiliations: ISBM (Institut Superieur de Biotechnologie de Monastir)

Journal: African Journal of Ecology
Location: Uganda

Blue Gum Chalcids are highly invasive gall-forming wasps that attack eucalypts. In Uganda, there was no infestation found at high altitudes from 1938 to 2452m (the highest tested) above sea level, which includes the range of Maiden’s Gum.

Blue Gum Chalcid – Leptocybe invasa
Maiden’s Gum – Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii

Nyeko P, Mutitu EK, Day RK, 2009. “Eucalyptus infestation by Leptocybe invasa in Uganda.” African Journal of Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.01004.x
Affiliations: Makerere University, KEFRI (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), CABI (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International)