Journal: Environmental Conservation
Location: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Thekkady, Kerala, India

The Periyar Tiger Reserve, India, is supported by the India Eco-Development Project (PTR-IEDP), an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) funded by donors. The project has been internally evaluated as successful, although out of the US$6million received, only 43.2% went to community-based conservation activities. When an independent survey of 180 people (half of whom had benefited from the PTR-IEDP, half of whom had not) was carried out, 71.1% of those who had benefited said their attitude to conservation was not changed by the project, and of the 55 community benefits only 36.4% were still being used.

Gubbi S, Linkie M, Leader-Williams N, 2008. “Evaluating the legacy of an integrated conservation and development project around a tiger reserve in India.” Environmental Conservation, 35: 331-339, doi:10.1017/S0376892908005225
Affiliations: Wildlife Conservation Society: India (WCS), University of Kent

Location: GCLME, West Africa

The Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME) is polluted, degraded, and has declining fish stocks, but most countries in the GCLME rely on its natural resources. Local marine fishery, offshore oil production, periwinkle* harvesting and mining have an estimated value of US$49,941.4 million, of which offshore oil production accounts for 59.79%.

*Periwinkle – Catharanthus roseus G. Don (used to make the chemotherapy drug Vinblastine Sulfate)

Chukwuonea NA, Ukwec CN, Onugud A, Ibee CA, 2009. “Valuing the Guinea current large marine ecosystem: Estimates of direct output impact of relevant marine activities” Ocean & Coastal Management, 52:(3-4) 189-196, doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2008.12.008

Centre for Entrepreneurship and Development Research, University of Nigeria
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Vienna
Bioresources Development and Conservation programme (BDCP), Nigeria
Interim Guinea Current Commission, Ghana

McPherson E.G., Simpson J.R., 2003 “Potential energy savings in buildings by an urban tree planting programme in California” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 2(2): 73-86(14), DOI: 10.1078/1618-8667-00025
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, CA
Location: California, USA

The ~177.3 million energy-conserving trees in California should reduce the amount of energy used for air conditioning by in a single year by 2.5% (saving US$485.8 million), and save utilities 10% (US$778.5 million) annually. If 50 million trees were planted, over a 15-year period each tree would save US$71, while the cost of planting and protecting each tree is only US$50.