Journal: Fisheries Management and Ecology
Location: Salt River watershed, Wyoming and Idaho, USA

Adult cutthroat trout in the Salt River watershed were tracked from September-October 2005 until August 2006 using implanted radio transmitters. The fish were caught in the main river stem, spent October-March largely sedentery in pools, started to move more in April and then increased May-June for the spawning season, when 44% of the 43 fish remained in Salt River in April 2006, 37% moved to mountain streams, and 19% into spring streams, almost all preferring streams with manmade pools and gravel-cobble riffles. The fish didn’t use streams that dewatered in the summer or were blocked by manmade barriers.

Cutthroat Trout – Oncorhynchus clarkii

Sanderson TB, Hubert WA, 2009. “Movements by adult cutthroat trout in a lotic system: implications for watershed-scale management” Fisheries Management and Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.2009.00669.x

Affiliations: USGS, Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit.

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Journal: Environmental Conservation
Location: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Thekkady, Kerala, India

The Periyar Tiger Reserve, India, is supported by the India Eco-Development Project (PTR-IEDP), an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) funded by donors. The project has been internally evaluated as successful, although out of the US$6million received, only 43.2% went to community-based conservation activities. When an independent survey of 180 people (half of whom had benefited from the PTR-IEDP, half of whom had not) was carried out, 71.1% of those who had benefited said their attitude to conservation was not changed by the project, and of the 55 community benefits only 36.4% were still being used.

Gubbi S, Linkie M, Leader-Williams N, 2008. “Evaluating the legacy of an integrated conservation and development project around a tiger reserve in India.” Environmental Conservation, 35: 331-339, doi:10.1017/S0376892908005225
Affiliations: Wildlife Conservation Society: India (WCS), University of Kent

Journal: African Journal of Ecology
Location: Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

Of 612 Mediterranean Killifish caught in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia, 54 (8.8%) had deformed spines, and were 8 times more likely to be deformed when from polluted areas. Deformities occurred less frequently as size increased, more often in fish under 25mm long.

Mediterranean Killifish: Aphanius fasciatus

Messaoudi I, Kessabi K, Kacem A, Saïd K, 2009. “Incidence of spinal deformities in natural populations of Aphanius fasciatus Nardo, 1827 from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia.” Africal Journal of Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.00972.x
Affiliations: ISBM (Institut Superieur de Biotechnologie de Monastir)

Journal: Animal Conservation
Location: Mary River?, Australia

The length of each underwater dive by hatchlings of the endangered Mary River Turtle was reduced by 51% in in hypoxic (depleted oxygen) water, as one would find at a dam, indicating there was insufficient oxygen for the turtles to respire underwater for as long, which in turn may cause them to be preyed upon more often. Evidence suggests that the turtles do not become accilimatised to hypoxia.

Mary River Turtle – Elusor macrurus

Clark NJ, Gordos MA, Franklin CE, 2009. “Implications of river damming: the influence of aquatic hypoxia on the diving physiology and behaviour of the endangered Mary River turtle.” Animal Conservation, 12(2): 147-154, DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00234.x
Affiliations: The University of Queensland, NSW DPI (New South Wales Department of Primary Industries

Journal: Biological Control
Location: ?

The invasive Japanese knotweed has 180 natural arthropod enemies; the sap-sucking jumping plant louse Aphalara itadori may be the first authorised for use in the European Union. 146,885 A. itadori eggs were laid, and it took 33 days to go through 5 nymph stages at 23oC. 1.52% of eggs laid on 87 species or varieties of plants were not on Japanese knotweed, but these did not become adults. When nymphs were transferred to Maidenhair vine, 7% developed to adulthood.

Japanese knotweed – Fallopia japonica
Maidenhair vine – Meuhlenbeckia complexa

Shaw RH, Bryner S, Tanner R, 2009. “The life history and host range of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: Potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union” Biological Control 49(2): 105-113, doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.01.016
Affiliations: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International (CABI), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH)

Journal: Basic and Applied Ecology
Location: Boreal Sweden

In 30 managed forests (180ha in total) in boreal Sweden surveyed before harvest, 33 red list bryophyte and lichen species (35% of all red list species that have been observed in that part of Sweden) were found, ranging from 5 to 16 species per stand (10 on average), or 6 per hectare. This is more frequent than in designated hot-spot areas. 51% of species were growing on dead trees, and 48% on live. Mature managed forests may be important habitats for red list bryophyte and lichen species.

Gustafsson L, Appelgren L, Jonsson F, Nordin U, Persson AA, Weslien J-O, 2004. “High occurrence of red-listed bryophytes and lichens in mature managed forests in boreal Sweden” Basic and Applied Ecology, Volume 5(2): 123-129, DOI: 10.1078/1439-1791-00223.
Affiliations: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Vänersborg, Trångsviken, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk)

Journal: BioScience
Location: Delaware Bay, USA

In the 1990s, there was a 90% decline in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) egg availability due to a 10-fold increase in harvesting for bait, resulting in a decline in body weight of their predator the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa), which congregates in the Delaware Bay every May to feed on the eggs. Between 1997 and 2007 red knots declined by 75%, and the proportion weighing more than 180g by their usual departure from the Bay (26th-28th May) decreased from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4. The horseshoe crab harvest has continued to increase despite restrictions, and red knots are not recovering.

Niles LJ, Bart J, Sitters HP, Dey AD, Clark KE, Atkinson PW, Baker AJ, Bennett KA, Kalasz KS, Clark NA, Clark J, Gillings S, Gates AS, González PM, Hernandez DE, Minton CDT, Morrison RIG, Porter RR, Ross RK, and Veitch CR, 2009. “Effects of Horseshoe Crab Harvest in Delaware Bay on Red Knots: Are Harvest Restrictions Working?” BioScience 59(2):153-164.
Affiliations: Conserve Wildlife Foundation of New Jersey; USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Centre; International Wader Study Group Bulletin; New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife; British Trust for Ornithology; Royal Ontario Museum; Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife; Fundacion Inalafquen; Richard Stockton College; Victoria Wader Studies Group; Carleton University; Canadian Wildlife Service; The Shorebird Project.

Nowak D.J., Kuroda M., Crane D.E. 2004 “Tree mortality rates and tree population projections in Baltimore, Maryland, USA” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2(3): 139-147(9), DOI: 10.1078/1618-8667-00030
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, NY
SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, NY
Location: Baltimore, Maryland, USA

In Baltimore, 6.6% of trees die annually, with an annual decrease in the number of trees of 4.2%. Particularly high mortality rates are seen on sites used for transportation, and commercial and industrial areas, whereas residential areas have relatively few tree deaths. Urban forestry in Baltimore is projected to decline.

Solfjeld I., Hansen O.B. 2004 “Post-transplant growth of five deciduous ordic tree species as affected by transplanting date and root pruning” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 2(3): 129-137(9), DOI: 10.1078/1618-8667-00029
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway
Location: Norway

Transplanting was followed by a reduction in growth in four deciduous tree species in Norway, but not in Rowan. After one season, Norway Maple, Horse Chestnut, Wild Cherry and and Common Lime ‘Pallida’ had shoot growth reduced by 38-86%, and leaf surface area by 13-61%. In the second season, shoot growth was reduced in Norway Maple by 71% and by 81% in Horse Chestnut, which did not return to normal growth in the third season.

Common Lime ‘Pallida’ – Tilia x europaea L. ‘Pallida’
Horse Chestnut – Aesculus hippocastanum L.
Norway Maple – Acer platanoides L.
Rowan – Sorbus aucuparia L.
Wild Cherry – Prunus avium L.