Journal: African Journal of Ecology
Location: Marsabit Protected Area, Kenya

The distribution of 9 satellite-collared elephants (4 females, 5 bulls) around a volcanic shield with a forestsavanna habitat mosaic in Marsabit National Park and Reserve, Kenya, was influenced most heavily by proximity to drinking water (24% – 13% for permanent water bodies and 11% for seasonal rivers). Elevation contributed 15% to the variation in distribution, but this is probably because vegetation structure is very dependent on elevation – shrubland contributed 10%, and forest 9%, with elephants preferring high forested elevations in the dry season and low shrubland in the wet season. Human proximity was also significant: distance from human settlements contributed 8% and distance from minor roads 7%. 27% of the variation was not significantly correlated to anything in particular.

Ngene SM, Skidmore AK, Van Gils H, Douglas-Hamilton I, Omondi P, 2009. “Elephant distribution around a volcanic shield dominated by a mosaic of forest and savanna (Marsabit, Kenya)” African Journal of Ecology 47(2): 234-245, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.01018.x

Affiliations: Kenya Wildlife Service; International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC); Save the Elephant Trust.

Journal: Basic and Applied Ecology
Location: Europe (Switzerland?)

When 50% of the leaf area of Canadian Goldenrod was removed by clipping, plants were 11.9% shorter up to 20 days, but 13.5% taller 42 to 138 after clipping began, so clipped plants were not shorter overall. However, they did have 12.2% thinner stems, and flowers had 43.2% less mass. When the plants were sprayed with jasmonic acid (a plant hormone that disturbs insect digestion and thus protects the plant from being eaten), the internodes (length between nodes) were 14.7% shorter, leaf area was reduced by 4.6%, it took 4.4 more days to flower, and flowers had 32.2% less mass than unsprayed plants.

Canadian Goldenrod – Solidago canadensis

van Kleunen M, Ramponi G, Schmid B, 2004. “Effects of herbivory simulated by clipping and jasmonic acid on Solidago canadensis.” Basic and Applied Ecology 5(2): 173-181, DOI: 10.1078/1439-1791-00225
Affiliations: Universität Zürich