Journal: Fisheries Management and Ecology
Location: Salt River watershed, Wyoming and Idaho, USA

Adult cutthroat trout in the Salt River watershed were tracked from September-October 2005 until August 2006 using implanted radio transmitters. The fish were caught in the main river stem, spent October-March largely sedentery in pools, started to move more in April and then increased May-June for the spawning season, when 44% of the 43 fish remained in Salt River in April 2006, 37% moved to mountain streams, and 19% into spring streams, almost all preferring streams with manmade pools and gravel-cobble riffles. The fish didn’t use streams that dewatered in the summer or were blocked by manmade barriers.

Cutthroat Trout – Oncorhynchus clarkii

Sanderson TB, Hubert WA, 2009. “Movements by adult cutthroat trout in a lotic system: implications for watershed-scale management” Fisheries Management and Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.2009.00669.x

Affiliations: USGS, Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit.

Journal: BioScience
Location: Delaware Bay, USA

In the 1990s, there was a 90% decline in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) egg availability due to a 10-fold increase in harvesting for bait, resulting in a decline in body weight of their predator the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa), which congregates in the Delaware Bay every May to feed on the eggs. Between 1997 and 2007 red knots declined by 75%, and the proportion weighing more than 180g by their usual departure from the Bay (26th-28th May) decreased from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4. The horseshoe crab harvest has continued to increase despite restrictions, and red knots are not recovering.

Niles LJ, Bart J, Sitters HP, Dey AD, Clark KE, Atkinson PW, Baker AJ, Bennett KA, Kalasz KS, Clark NA, Clark J, Gillings S, Gates AS, González PM, Hernandez DE, Minton CDT, Morrison RIG, Porter RR, Ross RK, and Veitch CR, 2009. “Effects of Horseshoe Crab Harvest in Delaware Bay on Red Knots: Are Harvest Restrictions Working?” BioScience 59(2):153-164.
Affiliations: Conserve Wildlife Foundation of New Jersey; USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Centre; International Wader Study Group Bulletin; New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife; British Trust for Ornithology; Royal Ontario Museum; Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife; Fundacion Inalafquen; Richard Stockton College; Victoria Wader Studies Group; Carleton University; Canadian Wildlife Service; The Shorebird Project.

Journal: Science
Location: ?, USA

It is suggested that some pea aphids, a crop pest, are tolerant to heat stress because of bacterial symbionts, Buchnera aphidicola. Members of a strain of heat-sensitive pea aphids with only a non-resistant symbiont were put in 2x2x2m mesh cages, and heat shocks were simulated by putting plastic sheets over the cages (increasing temperature by ~5°C to what would normally affect pea aphid reproduction but still occur naturally). Introduction of predators does not necessarily cause the number of aphids to drop. The number of pea aphids was reduced when subjected to heat shocks, and the presence of 7-spot ladybird predators made no difference (X2 = 2.4, P > 0.5). However, when harlequin ladybirds were introduced, the effect of heat shock was alleviated (X2 = 41.8, P <10–6) because they only predate when population density of aphids is high.

In pairs of one green aphid clone and one red aphid clone, the population growth rate of both red heat-sensitive clones (0.243 ± 0.009) and green heat sensitive clones (0.269 ± 0.008) was greater than their green (0.214 ± 0.007, selection coefficient 0.25) and red (0.247 ± 0.010, selection coefficient 0.20) heat-tolerant counterpart, respectively. When subjected to heat shocks, the growth rate of heat-tolerant clones was notably greater for both green (0.234 ± 0.023 compared to 0.155 ± 0.027 in sensitive reds) and red (0.208 ± 0.031 compared to 0.129 ± 0.033 in sensitive greens) clones. Although the population growth rate was reduced in heat-sensitive clones upon heat shock, this was less than the decrease in growth of heat-sensitive clones (X2A = 12.1, P < 0.001; X2B = 6.96, P < 0.01). Thus rapid evolution of heat-tolerant pea aphid strains may occur if climate change causes more frequent heat shocks.

Pea Aphid – Acyrthosiphon pisum
Seven-Spot Ladybird – Coccinella septempunctata
Harlequin Ladybird – Harmonia axyridis

Harmon JP, Moran NA, Ives AR, 2009. “Species Response to Environmental Change: Impacts of Food Web Interactions and Evolution” Science 323(5919): 1347-1350, DOI: 10.1126/science.1167396
Affiliations: University of Wisconsin, and University of Arizona

McPherson E.G., Simpson J.R., 2003 “Potential energy savings in buildings by an urban tree planting programme in California” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 2(2): 73-86(14), DOI: 10.1078/1618-8667-00025
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, CA
Location: California, USA

The ~177.3 million energy-conserving trees in California should reduce the amount of energy used for air conditioning by in a single year by 2.5% (saving US$485.8 million), and save utilities 10% (US$778.5 million) annually. If 50 million trees were planted, over a 15-year period each tree would save US$71, while the cost of planting and protecting each tree is only US$50.

Johnson A.D., Gerhold H.D. 2003 “Carbon storage by urban tree cultivars, in roots and above-ground”, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 2(2): 65-72(8), DOI: 10.1078/1618-8667-00024
Southern University and A&M College – CAFCS, LA
Pennsylvania State University, PA
Location: ?, USA

The average amount of carbon stored in nursery or recently transplanted Juneberry, Apple, Pear, and Lilac cultivars was measured. Smaller trees (3.8-6.4 cm diameter at breast height) stored 0.3-1.0 kg carbon in the roots, and 1.7-3.6 kg in total. Larger trees (14.0-19.7 cm dbh) stored 10.4 kg+ in the roots, and 54.5 kg in total.

Juneberry – Amelenchier spp.
Apple – Malus spp.
Pear – Pyrus spp.
Lilac – Syringa spp.

Nowak D.J., Kuroda M., Crane D.E. 2004 “Tree mortality rates and tree population projections in Baltimore, Maryland, USA” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2(3): 139-147(9), DOI: 10.1078/1618-8667-00030
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, NY
SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, NY
Location: Baltimore, Maryland, USA

In Baltimore, 6.6% of trees die annually, with an annual decrease in the number of trees of 4.2%. Particularly high mortality rates are seen on sites used for transportation, and commercial and industrial areas, whereas residential areas have relatively few tree deaths. Urban forestry in Baltimore is projected to decline.